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技术 2022年11月23日
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前言:软件缺陷是不可避免的,要尽量减少错误并提高软件质量,主要有两在类技术,即缺陷预防和缺陷检测

缺陷预防包括编写更好的设计规范、实施代码审核制度、运行代码静态分析工具、运行单元测试等

PMD是一种开源分析Java代码的工具,通过静态分析获知代码错误,该工具可以做到检查Java代码中是否含有未使用的变量、是否含有空的抓取块、是否含有不必要的对象等等

因此Jenkins+PMD构建自动化静态代码检测是很有必要的

PMD下载地址:http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmd/

下载后解压即可

PMD主要可以通过ant脚本来执行,编写ant的build文件,这里新建的为如buildPMD.xml

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?> <project name=”pmd” default=”pmd” basedir=”.”> <property environment=”env”> <property name=”ExampleProject.location” value=”../ExampleProject”> <!– 定义pmd的classpath,均为下载的pmd包解压后lib目录下的jar包–> <path id=”pmd.classpath”> <pathelement location=”${basedir}/lib/asm-3.2.jar”> <pathelement location=”${basedir}/lib/jaxen-1.1.1.jar”> <pathelement location=”${basedir}/lib/junit-4.4.jar”> <pathelement location=”${basedir}/lib/pmd-5.0.4.jar”> <!– <fileset dir=”${basedir}/lib/”> <include name=”**/*.jar”> –> </include></pathelement></pathelement></pathelement></pathelement></path> <target depends=”pmd_html” name=”pmd”> <taskdef name=”pmd” classname=”net.sourceforge.pmd.ant.PMDTask” classpathref=”pmd.classpath”> <!– 定义代码检测规则,这里直接列出规则imports.xml和java-unusedcode规则,本例注释了,使用下面一种在另一文件中定义规则集–> <!– <pmd rulesetfiles=”rulesets/java/imports.xml,java-unusedcode”> –> <!– 定义PMD检测规则所在的文件,规则集在pmdrule.xml文件中定义–> <pmd rulesetfiles=”${basedir}/pmdrule.xml” encoding=”UTF-8″> <!– 输出XML格式的报告–> <formatter type=”html” tofile=”pmd_report.html” toconsole=”true”> <!– 静态代码检测ExampleProject工程下src目录下的所有java文件–> <fileset dir=”${ExampleProject.location}/src”> <include name=”**/*.java”> </include></fileset> </formatter></pmd> </taskdef></target> <target name=”pmd_html”> <taskdef name=”pmd” classname=”net.sourceforge.pmd.ant.PMDTask” classpathref=”pmd.classpath”> <!– <pmd rulesetfiles=”rulesets/java/imports.xml,java-unusedcode”> –> <pmd rulesetfiles=”${basedir}/pmdrule.xml” encoding=”UTF-8″> <!– 输出HTML格式的报告–> <formatter type=”xml” tofile=”pmd_report.html” toconsole=”true”> <fileset dir=”${ExampleProject.location}/src”> <include name=”**/*.java”> </include></fileset> </formatter></pmd> </taskdef></target> </project>

本文中定义了两个target,分别生成了XML和HTML格式的报告,因为在Jenkins中的分析插件需要用XML格式才能生成视图报告,而XML格式对于团队来说不直观,不宜发送邮件,因此生成两份报告,一份用于Jenkins分析,一份发送邮件用于团队成员直接查看

编写好buildPMD.xml,直接使用ant -f buildPMD.xml即可在CMD命令或Linux shell下执行PMD静态代码检测

在Jenkins中新建个任务,Build项Add build step中选择“Execute Shell”,输入ant -f buildPMD.xml即可

附:pmdrule.xml

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?> <ruleset xmlns=”http://pmd.sourceforge.net/ruleset/2.0.0″ xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance” name=”pmdrule” xsi:schemalocation=”http://pmd.sourceforge.net/ruleset/2.0.0 http://pmd.sourceforge.net/ruleset_2_0_0.xsd”> <description>PMD Plugin preferences rule set</description> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AbstractClassWithoutAbstractMethod”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AbstractClassWithoutAnyMethod”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/naming.xml/AbstractNaming”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AccessorClassGeneration”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/optimizations.xml/AddEmptyString”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strings.xml/AppendCharacterWithChar”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/sunsecure.xml/ArrayIsStoredDirectly”> <rule ref=”rulesets/ecmascript/basic.xml/AssignmentInOperand”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/controversial.xml/AssignmentInOperand”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AssignmentToNonFinalStatic”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/controversial.xml/AtLeastOneConstructor”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/controversial.xml/AvoidAccessibilityAlteration”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/optimizations.xml/AvoidArrayLoops”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/migrating.xml/AvoidAssertAsIdentifier”> <rule ref=”rulesets/xsl/xpath.xml/AvoidAxisNavigation”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/basic.xml/AvoidBranchingStatementAsLastInLoop”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/finalizers.xml/AvoidCallingFinalize”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strictexception.xml/AvoidCatchingGenericException”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strictexception.xml/AvoidCatchingNPE”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strictexception.xml/AvoidCatchingThrowable”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AvoidConstantsInterface”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/basic.xml/AvoidDecimalLiteralsInBigDecimalConstructor”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/AvoidDeeplyNestedIfStmts”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/naming.xml/AvoidDollarSigns”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strings.xml/AvoidDuplicateLiterals”> <rule 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<rule ref=”rulesets/java/imports.xml/UnusedImports”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unusedcode.xml/UnusedLocalVariable”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unusedcode.xml/UnusedModifier”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unnecessary.xml/UnusedNullCheckInEquals”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/basic.xml/UnusedNullCheckInEquals”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unusedcode.xml/UnusedPrivateField”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unusedcode.xml/UnusedPrivateMethod”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/optimizations.xml/UseArrayListInsteadOfVector”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/optimizations.xml/UseArraysAsList”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/junit.xml/UseAssertEqualsInsteadOfAssertTrue”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/junit.xml/UseAssertNullInsteadOfAssertTrue”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/junit.xml/UseAssertSameInsteadOfAssertTrue”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/junit.xml/UseAssertTrueInsteadOfAssertEquals”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/design.xml/UseCollectionIsEmpty”> <rule ref=”rulesets/xsl/xpath.xml/UseConcatOnce”> <rule 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ref=”rulesets/java/basic.xml/UselessOverridingMethod”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/unnecessary.xml/UselessParentheses”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/basic.xml/UselessParentheses”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/strings.xml/UselessStringValueOf”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/naming.xml/VariableNamingConventions”> <rule ref=”rulesets/ecmascript/braces.xml/WhileLoopsMustUseBraces”> <rule ref=”rulesets/java/braces.xml/WhileLoopsMustUseBraces”>

关于PMD rulesets规则的意思可以查看:http://pmd.sourceforge.net/pmd-5.0.4/rules/index.html

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